Los mixosporidios son metazoos, anteriormente considerados junto a los protozoos, de tamaño microscópicos,
Su habitat en peces :son las branquias, vesícula biliar, conductos de órganos (riñón, ureter etc). Difíciles de observar e identificar, por su tamaño y por cuanto los que viven en la vesicula biliar, pueden adoptar diferentes formas (sus etapas de desarrollo). También se ha descrito especies de Myxidium parasitando aves. Mixosporidios según su habitat
- Mixosporidios en branquias
- Mixosporidios en la musculatura
- Mixosporidios en en vesicula
- Mixosporidios en riñón
- Mixosporidiosetapas de desarrollo
- Mixosporidios ciclo de vida
- Mixosporidios caracteres de la espora
- Mixosporidios Hospedadores-mixosp.
- Kallert D M; Ponader S; Adelt S; Kaese P; Geyer R; Haas W; El-Matbouli M 2010:
Analysis of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss epidermal mucus and evaluation of semiochemical activity for polar filament discharge in Myxobolus cerebralis actinospores.Journal of fish biology 2010;77(7):1579-98.
As myxozoan actinospores are stimulated by fish epidermal mucus to attach to their hosts via extrusion of filaments from specialized organelles, the polar capsules, mucus components were tested for discharge triggering activity on Myxobolus cerebralis actinospores. Using various methodological approaches, a selective exclusion of candidate substances based on experimental outcome is provided and the physiochemical traits of the putative agents are explored to create a basis for the isolation of the host recognition chemostimuli. Activity was detected in compounds that can be characterized as small molecular, amphiphilic to slightly hydrophobic organic substances. They were separable by chromatographic methods using reversed phase C18 supports. An active fraction was isolated by solid phase extraction comprising at least nine UV-detectable constituents as shown by thin-layer chromatography. By means of biochemical fractionation and analysis of host fish mucus, non-volatile inorganic electrolytes, all volatiles, free L-amino acids, glycoproteins, bound and free hexoses, sialic acids, glycans, proteins, urea, amines and inositols were shown not to trigger polar filament discharge. The results contribute to the identification of the attachment host cues and enable a more focused laboratory activation of myxozoan actinospores.
- Grabner D S; El-Matbouli M 2010:
Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) portal of entry into the fish host.Diseases of aquatic organisms .90(3):197-206.
The portal of entry and the penetration process of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae are still poorly understood. In the present study, spores of T. bryosalmonae derived from the bryozoan host (malacospores) were activated chemically and mechanically to investigate their reaction after attachment to the fish host in vitro. Amoeboid movement of both sporoplasms was shown for the first time. The morphology of malacospores was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Openings of the polar capsules and released polar filaments were visible. One sporoplasm was observed leaving the spore shell. Laboratory exposure experiments of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to spores of T. bryosalmonae were also conducted. Single fish were incubated with 1000 to 2000 spores in 100 ml of water for 5 to 60 min. Immunohistochemically stained sections of skin and gills were examined using light microscopy, as well as ultra thin sections using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to investigate attachment and early penetration. Whole fish and excised gills of fish exposed to a spore suspension were fixed and prepared for scanning electron microscopy. Attached and penetrating stages were found only on or in the gills, and not in the skin. Due to the low overall number of spores, only a few spores were found adjacent to the gill epithelium in TEM. No parasite stages were found on the samples used for SEM. These results indicate that the gills are the preferred entry loci for the amoeboid sporoplasms of T. bryosalmonae into the fish host